Teleopto Wireless Optogenetics

Wireless Optogenetics for Freely Moving Animals

Teleopto Wireless Optogenetics joins wireless LED light sources with implantable optic fibers. It includes a precise remote control to provide researchers with a turnkey stimulation system for mice, rats, and other small animals.

  • Receivers (head-mounted) are very small and lightweight.
  • Has been used with mice, rats, and marmosets.
  • Remote control transmits the stimulation signal to the receiver by infrared.
  • Easy scaleup to multiple animals.

Our lab has used the wireless Teleopto system daily for the last two years and we have been extremely pleased with our experience. We have been impressed by how readily available the staff at Amuza have been to assist with any questions we’ve had and their enthusiasm towards creating custom parts to meet the needs of our unique experiments. Based on our experiences with the Teleopto system, we highly recommend it to labs interested in initiating optogenetics experiments or transitioning from wired optogenetic systems.

Hirofumi Morishita

Associate Professor, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Over the past 15 years, optogenetics has revolutionized the way neuroscientists interrogate neural circuits by allowing researchers to stimulate and/or inhibit neurons at a precise time and place.

How exactly does in vivo optogenetics work?

In in vivo optogenetics, fiber optic cables are used to bring the light from a laser or LED light source to a target region in the brain of a mouse, rat or other research animals. While the light source is traditionally stationary, the addition of a rotary joint to the fiber optic cable can allow the animal some freedom of movement within small environments such as operant chambers. During optogenetic experiments, stimulation and inhibition can be triggered directly by the animal’s behavior. For example, nose pokes, lever presses, and animal location (determined by video tracking software) have all been used to trigger optogenetic stimulation. Stimulation and inhibition can also be used during conditioning sessions before behavioral testing. In these ways in vivo optogenetics can both inform and be controlled by behavioral and electrophysiological testing.

Teleopto Wireless Optogenetics takes in vivo optogenetics one step further: the LED light source is worn externally by the mouse or rat. Wireless communication allows complete freedom of movement in large complex environments, allowing optogenetics to also be used in large open field and maze experiments. A short optic fiber brings the light from the LED to the target region of the brain, keeping the heat generated by the LED outside of the animal. Wireless optogenetics also improves data from video tracking software by removing motion artifacts frequently caused by moving fiber optic cables.

Starter kits contain the core components of Teleopto:

Teleopto Starter Kit, TeleSS:

1 each of Remote, Receiver (specify the type), Emitter, Charger, Stereotaxic Adapter,  Two Channel Trigger Cable and 3x LED fiber optics (specify).

Teleopto Starter Kit 2 channel pulse, TeleSS 2Ch:

1 each of Remote, 2 ch pulse Receiver (specify the size), Emitter, Charger, Holder, Two Channel Trigger Cable and 3x LED fiber optics (specify).

Lightweight Rechargeable Receivers

Teleopto’s lightweight receivers and bright LEDs provide up to 13 mW of light to the tip of an attached optic fiber. 1, 2, and 3-gram receivers are available for stimulation of single locations as well as dual (bilateral) locations. We recommend 1 g and 2 g receivers for optogenetic stimulation of mice and 2 grams and larger receivers for optogenetic stimulation of rats and larger animals.

2 channel pulse receivers
The new 2 channel pulse receivers are available in 1 g, 2 g, and 3 g sizes. As with our original pulse receivers, LEDs are ON while the remote is receiving a TTL pulse (or a trigger button is being pressed), and OFF in the absence of a pulse.

2 channel pulse receivers can be used in several different ways:

  • With 2 color LED fiber-optics for stimulation and inhibition at a single site
  • With bilateral implants, allowing independent control of each side.
  • With two single-channel receivers (custom item, please inquire). This allows independent control of the two receivers, mounted at different sites or on different animals.

One limitation of the 2 channel pulse receivers is that only one channel can be activated at a time – both channels cannot be ON simultaneously.

Interchangeable LED Optic Fibers

Each unit comprises a three-prong electrical connector, encapsulated LED, and implantable optical fiber. The LED can be blue, green, or yellow.

Single optic fiber: lightweight and robust enough to be inserted without a guide cannula.
LED probe without optic fiber: Flat window for brain surface stimulation.
Two colors LED optic fiber: Two independently controlled LEDs are attached to two 250 μm fibers bundled together.
Bilateral LED optic fiber: for bilateral stimulation.
Two-color Bilateral LED optic fiber: for bilateral stimulation and inhibition.
LED fiber optic Cannula: For stimulation via implantable cannula.

Fiber length, fiber diameter, and the distance between the bilateral fibers can all be made to specification. Please ask about custom LED colors.

IR Remote Control

The remote control allows direct control by push buttons for two separate channels. It also allows two-channel control by TTL pulses from programmable stimulators and pulse generators.

Two-Channel Pulse Generator

The STO two-channel pulse generator delivers pulse trains to the Teleopto remote control and also the LAD-1 LED array driver. Pulse trains can be triggered manually or by 5V TTL pulses. TTL pulses can be generated by many types of behavioral test equipment, ask us if you are unsure about compatibility.


The Telehub allows a single remote control to communicate with receivers in up to six operant chambers or other optically isolated environments.


Teleopto charger
Long range infrared emitter
Stereotaxic adapter
Dummy receivers (for conditioning)
Light meters

User Publications

Using loss-and gain-of-function approaches to target amygdala-projecting serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus that enhance anxiety-related and conditioned fear behaviors.Bernabe, C. S., Caliman, I. F., Truitt, W. A., Molosh, A. I., Lowry, C. A., Hay-Schmidt, A., … & Johnson, P. L.
(2020).  Journal of Psychopharmacology, 0269881119900981.

Prefrontal parvalbumin interneurons require juvenile social experience to establish adult social behavior.
Bicks, L. K., Yamamuro, K., Flanigan, M. E., Kim, J. M., Kato, D., Lucas, E. K., … & Norman, K. J.
(2020).  Nature Communications11(1), 1-15.

Yellowman, Z. G.
(Doctoral dissertation, UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA).

REM sleep–active MCH neurons are involved in forgetting hippocampus-dependent memories.
Izawa, S., Chowdhury, S., Miyazaki, T., Mukai, Y., Ono, D., Inoue, R., … & Terao, A. 
(2019) Science365(6459), 1308-1313.

“Novel Optogenetic Approach Reveals a Function of cGMP in Synaptic Plasticity and Memory”
Borovac, J.
(2019). Doctoral dissertation.

SatB2-Expressing Neurons in the Parabrachial Nucleus Encode Sweet Taste. 
Fu, O., Iwai, Y., Kondoh, K., Misaka, T., Minokoshi, Y., & Nakajima, K. I.
(2019). Cell reports27(6), 1650-1656.

Correlative study using structural MRI and super-resolution microscopy to detect structural alterations induced by long-term optogenetic stimulation of striatal medium spiny neurons. 
Abe, Y., Komaki, Y., Seki, F., Shibata, S., Okano, H., & Tanaka, K. F.
(2019). Neurochemistry international125, 163-174.

High Hes1 expression and resultant Ascl1 suppression regulate quiescent vs. active neural stem cells in the adult mouse brain.
Sueda, R., Imayoshi, I., Harima, Y., & Kageyama, R.
(2019).  Genes & development.

Crucial role of feedback signals from prelimbic cortex to basolateral amygdala in the retrieval of morphine withdrawal memory. 
Song, J., Shao, D., Guo, X., Zhao, Y., Cui, D., Ma, Q., … & Zheng, P.
(2019) Science advances5(2), eaat3210.

Synchronized activation of striatal direct and indirect pathways underlies the behavior in unilateral dopamine‐depleted mice.
Jáidar, O., Carrillo‐Reid, L., Nakano, Y., Lopez‐Huerta, V. G., Hernandez‐Cruz, A., Bargas, J., … & Arbuthnott, G. W.
(2019) European Journal of Neuroscience.

Excitatory connections between the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex show a role for the prelimbic cortex in fear extinction.
Marek, R., Xu, L., Sullivan, R. K., & Sah, P.
(2018) Nature neuroscience21(5), 654.

Top-down cortical input during NREM sleep consolidates perceptual memory.
D. Miyamoto et al
(2016), Science

Htr2a-Expressing Cells in the Central Amygdala Control the Hierarchy between Innate and Learned Fear.
Isosaka, T., Matsuo, T., Yamaguchi, T., Funabiki, K., Nakanishi, S., Kobayakawa, R., & Kobayakawa, K.
(2015). Cell163(5), 1153-1164.

A Top-Down Cortical Circuit for Accurate Sensory Perception.
Manita, S., Suzuki, T., Homma, C., Matsumoto, T., Odagawa, M., Yamada, K., … & Murayama, M.
(2015). Neuron.

The lateral parabrachial nucleus is actively involved in the acquisition of fear memory in mice.
Sato, M., Ito, M., Nagase, M., Sugimura, Y. K., Takahashi, Y., Watabe, A. M., & Kato, F.
(2015). Molecular brain,8(1), 22.

Let’s Get Started!

Virtual demos available

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