Teleopto Optogenetics FAQ

Where can I find out more about how to plan my optogenetics experiment?

Please see our Optogenetics Resource Guide, where we have shared some of the many resources our customers have found useful for planning their optogenetics projects.

How long will it take for me to receive my order?
Normally the lead time will be 1 month.

LED array questions

What colors are available for the array?

White,  280 nm, 365 nm, V (violet 405 nm), 405 nm, 420 nm, B (Blue 470 nm), G (Green 525 nm), Y (Yellow 590 nm), R (Red 630 nm), 660 nm, 740 nm, 850 nm, I (Infrared 940 nm), please ask for others.

What is the output for the array?

Output is continuously adjustable, the maximum irradiance varies for each color. The light power starts from zero and has step-less regulation.

You can control the power using the knob on the front panel of the LAD driver, or vary the voltage of an analog trigger pulse. Please see the manual for detailed information or ask Amuza. 

What are the dimensions of the LEDA-X array?
144 x 100 x 16 mm.
Do you know if the light power is uniform between and within each well in the 96 well plate? Most LEDs have a cone-like spread, so I was wondering if the cone covered the full surface of cells in each well.

Our LEDs have a quite wide-spreading angle (120 degrees), and so cover the full surface of each well in a 96 plate.

Are the arrays calibrated so all LEDs have the same power?
The typical light power variability between LEDs is about 10%.

What is the maximum voltage output of the LED Array Driver?
The maximum voltage of LAD-1 is 13.5V.
What is the length of the cable that connects the array to the driver?
2 meters, please let us know if you need longer cables.
Can we split the signal from one channel of the STO so that it controls 2 channels on the LAD4?
Yes. Just let us know and we will include the appropriate cable.
The VTS-4 can also be used to control the LAD4, correct?
VTS4 can only output 5V TTL, so you can control the stimulation timing, but you cannot modulate the intensity. Power can only be controlled by the knob on LAD-1 in this case.

Wireless Optogenetics Questions

How wide is the cone of light produced by the fiber optic implant?
We use a fiber with Numerical Aperture (NA) 0.5, so the exit cone angle is about 42 degrees. For reference: our 250 µm fiber has a core of 240 µm. 500 µm fiber: core 480 µm.
How close together can the two fibers of a bilateral LED implant be?

0.9 mm, center to center. 1.3 mm for 500 µm fibers.

This system is almost perfect for us, but would be more ideal with customizable options - can you tailor it to meet our specific needs?

The receivers and LED-Fiber optics can be customized extensively, often without additional costs. Examples include higher output receivers, different configurations to allow integration with headstages, different LED colors, etc. Please let us know what you need and we can work with you.

Which receiver should I choose, pulse type,continuous type, or OptoFlash?

In general, we recommend the pulse type receiver for most experiments, because of
many advantages (higher output power, better time resolution, easier control, etc.). However, we recommend the continuous type receiver in the following cases:

  • In an environment with hiding places, like mouse tunnels, houses, or bedding for nesting.
    Teleopto uses infrared signals for communication, so if animals hide under opaque materials
    communications can fail. In continuous type receivers, so long as the “turn on” pulse is sent while there is no obstruction between the emitter and the receiver, the stimulation will continue when the receiver is blocked.
  • For illuminating very long term (several seconds to several minutes without interruption).
    The light power of continuous receivers is typically less than 30% that of corresponding pulse type receivers. This is to prevent overheating due to continuous high current.

Optoflash is preprogrammed permanently at the factory with the pulse train of your choice. It has significantly longer battery life than our receivers, but there is no control other than the on/off switch.

The receiver flashes when I touch it. Also, it flashes when I bring it close to fluorescent lights or electric power cords. Is this normal?

Yes. There is a technical challenge for completely eliminating such artifacts. Those can be reduced by decreasing sensitivity of the sensor, but it’s trade-off with transmission range. We tuned the sensitivity with which it doesn’t flash on animal’s head in typical lab environment. If you see artifact in your experimental setup, please keep enough distance from fluorescent lights. The new communication protocol for the 2ch pulse receiver resulted in higher resistibility for environmental noise. For noisy environments, we can even provide 1ch version pulse receivers using this protocol. Please contact us for more details.

How long will a wireless receiver keep powering the LED before the rechargeable battery is exhausted?
That depends on many factors, such as the output setting, type of LED, the size of the battery, and the percentage of time the LED is powered on (duty cycle). Please ask Amuza to calculate an estimate for you.
What is the standby time for the receivers?

For the new 2g (2 gram) receiver it is 28 hrs. For the original 2g receivers it is 24 hrs.

How fast can the LED fiber optics be pulsed?

The maximum tested rate is 1000 Hz in P (Pulse) mode. The maximum rate in 2P (2 channel pulse) mode is approximately 450 Hz (total combined rate for both channels).

Can the two LEDs on a bilateral or two color LED fiber optic be pulsed independently?

2 channel receivers can control each LED separately, but both LEDs can not be lit simultaneously.

I have a two channel receiver, I would like to do simultaneous (both sides illuminated at the same time) bilateral stimulation. How do we do this?
Please let us know, we can wire the TeleLCD bilateral implants for this purpose. Two channel receivers can only have one channel active at a time. Normally our bilateral (TeleLCD) implants are wired so that each side is tied to a single channel. We can change this so that both sides are illuminated by a single channel. If you already have TeleLCD implants wired the normal way, you can bridge the two outer pins (anodes). This will cause both sides to illuminate when either channel is active.
What if I need a bilateral probe, but can’t implant the two optic fibers in parallel?

The bilateral fiber optic is also available with the LEDs attached to the receiver by short cables, allowing each optic fiber to be implanted independently.

How long is the latency between a trigger pulse and the receiver output? What is the time resolution for pulses?

There is a 240 µsecond latency for activating the original pulse receiver, 25 ms for continuous receivers, and 2050 µs for the new 2 channel pulse receiver. The time resolution is 150 µs.

How many animals can one Remote Control stimulate at once?

The emitters are limited only by range and line of sight, and will pulse all of the receivers that can “see” an emitter. We offer a wide beam emitter that will pulse all receivers within 3 m, and small emitters meant to illuminate individual cages or sections of a maze. With some limitations, one remote can send different pulse trains to 2 different animals.

How deep can the fiber optics be implanted?

Teleopto fiber optics can be made to any length you specify. The acrylic fiber is flexible, so a guide cannula may be appropriate for deep implants in larger animals.

Can the LED-fiber optics be reused?

Users following the implantation and removal instructions in our manual have used the same LED-fiber optics up to 5 times.

What wavelength do the IR emitters and receivers use? Can the emitters be used to transmit signals through the plastic walls of a chamber?
940nm. Polycarbonate is generally transparent at this wavelength: the signal can pass through several standard transparent mouse home cages so long as there are no obstructions between the emittter and the animal. Opaque barriers should be placed between chambers if they should not be receiving the same pulse trains at the same time.
Does the clip type emitter have to be used with a Telehub? Does the wide area emitter have to be plugged directly into the remote control?

Both emitter types can either be plugged directly into the remote or via the Telehub.

What if I need more light power?
We offer custom high power receivers. A standard 1 gram pulse receiver coupled to a blue LED with a 500µm diameter fiber optic can output 13 mW; custom versions can output 20 mW for short pulses. Custom 2 gram receivers can output up to 35 mW for short pulses. More examples are given in the Teleopto brochure.
How do I protect the 3 pin connector for the LED after implantation?
A drop of hot glue covering the pins and the top surface of the implant will help protect the pins. If you have difficulty removing the hot glue: You can wipe the pins with cooking spray oil first, it will act as a release agent.
Can Teleopto be combined with electrophysiology headstages?

Yes. Users sometimes see stimulation artifacts at the onset of optical stimulation, but the amplitude is smaller than the artifacts seen with conventional electrical stimulation. We don’t see any other interference, by, say, the transmission signal, etc.

How do I sterilize the LED Fiber optic before implantation?

Quickly wiping the implant with 70% ethanol is recommended.

What is a typical pulse train for use with CHR2?
2 ms pulse width @ 10 – 40 hz
Will acrylic cement or resin-ionomer cement damage the acrylic optic fibers used in Teleopto implants?
No. The fibers can be exposed to cement without changing their optical properties.

Let’s Get Started!