280 nm, V (violet 405), B (Blue 470 nm), G (Green 525 nm), Y (Yellow 590 nm), R (Red 630 nm), 660 nm, 740 nm, I (Infrared 940 nm), please ask for others.
What is the output for the array?
Please see the manual for detailed information.
What are the dimensions of the LEDA-X array?
144 x 100 x 16 mm
Do you know if the light power is uniform between and within each well in the 96 well plate? Most LEDs have a cone-like spread, so I was wondering if the cone covered the full surface of cells in each well.
Our LED has quite wide spreading angle (120 degrees) so covers full surface of each well in 96 plate.
Are the arrays calibrated so all LEDs have the same power?
The typical light power variability between LEDs is about 10%.
What is the maximum voltage output of the LED Array Driver?
The maximum voltage of LAD-1 is 13.5V.
What is the lowest intensity available for the LEDA arrays?
The light power starts from zero, and has stepless regulation.
You can control the power by the stepless knob on the front panel, or use an analog trigger voltage pulse.
What is the length of the cable that connects the array to the driver?
Can we split the signal from one channel of the STO so that it controls 2 channels on the LAD4?
Yes, absolutely, just let us know and we will include a splitter with your order.
Wireless Optogenetics Questions
This system is almost perfect for us, but would be more ideal with customizable options - can you tailor it to meet our specific needs?
The receivers and LED-Fiber optics can be customized extensively, often without additional costs. Examples include higher output receivers, different configurations to allow integration with headstages, different LED colors, etc. Please let us know what you need and we can work with you.
Which receiver should I choose, pulse type or continuous type?
In general, we recommend the pulse type receiver for most experiments, because of many advantages (higher output power, better time resolution, easier control, etc.). However, we recommend the continuous type receiver in the following cases:
In an environment with hiding places, like mouse tunnels, houses, or bedding for nesting. Teleopto uses infrared signals for communication, so if animals hide under opaque materials communications can fail. In continuous type receivers, so long as the “turn on” pulse is sent while there is no obstruction between the emitter and the receiver, the stimulation will continue when the receiver is blocked.
For illuminating very long term (several seconds to several minutes without interruption). The light power of continuous receivers is typically less than 30% that of corresponding pulse type receivers. This is to prevent overheating due to continuous high current.
The receiver flashes when I touch it. Also, it flashes when I bring it close to fluorescent lights or electric power cords. Is this normal?
Yes. There is a technical challenge for completely eliminating such artifacts. Those can be reduced by decreasing sensitivity of the sensor, but it’s trade-off with transmission range. We tuned the sensitivity with which it doesn’t flash on animal’s head in typical lab environment. If you see artifact in your experimental setup, please keep enough distance from fluorescent lights. The new communication protocol for the 2ch pulse receiver resulted in higher resistibility for environmental noise. For noisy environments, we can even provide 1ch version pulse receivers using this protocol. Please contact us for more details.
How long will a wireless receiver keep powering the LED before the rechargeable battery is exhausted?
That depends on many factors, such as the output setting, type of LED, the size of the battery, and the percentage of time the LED is powered on (duty cycle). For a 50% duty cycle, a blue LED on a 1g receiver will last over an hour, while a yellow LED on a 2g receiver will last over 6 hrs.
What is the standby time for the receivers?
For the new 2g (2 gram) receiver it is 28 hrs. For the original 2g receivers it is 24 hrs.
How fast can the LED fiber optics be pulsed?
The maximum tested rate is 1000 Hz in P (Pulse) mode. The maximum rate in 2P (2 channel pulse) mode is approximately 450 Hz (total combined rate for both channels).
Can the two LEDs on a bilateral or two color LED fiber optic be pulsed independently?
2 channel receivers can control each LED separately, but both LEDs can not be lit simultaneously.
What if I need a bilateral probe, but can’t implant the two optic fibers in parallel?
The bilateral fiber optic is also available with the LEDs attached to the receiver by short cables, allowing each optic fiber to be implanted independently.
How long is the latency between a trigger pulse and the receiver output? What is the time resolution for pulses?
There is a 240 µsecond latency for activating the original pulse receiver, 25 ms for continuous receivers, and 2050 µs for the new 2 channel pulse receiver. The time resolution is 150 µs.
How many animals can one Remote Control stimulate at once?
The emitters are limited only by range and line of sight, and will pulse all of the receivers that can “see” an emitter. We offer a wide beam emitter that will pulse all receivers within 3 m, and small emitters meant to illuminate individual cages or sections of a maze. With some limitations, one remote can send different pulse trains to 2 different animals.
How deep can the fiber optics be implanted?
Teleopto fiber optics can be made to any length you specify. The acrylic fiber is flexible, so a guide cannula may be appropriate for deep implants in larger animals.
Is there a discount for large purchases?
Yes, orders of 10 or more of an item will receive a 5% discount.
Can the LED-fiber optics be reused?
Users following the implantation and removal instructions in our manual have used the same LED-fiber optics up to 5 times.
What wavelength do the IR emitters and receivers use? Can the emitters be used to transmit signals through the plastic walls of a chamber?
940 nm. Polycarbonate is generally transparent at this wavelength, but it is best to place the emitter above the enclosure without any obstructions between it and the animal. Opaque barriers should be placed between chambers if there is a chance of interference between different remotes/receivers.
Does the clip type emitter have to be used with a Telehub? Does the wide area emitter have to be plugged directly into the remote control?
Both emitter types can either be plugged directly into the remote or via the Telehub.
What if I need more light power?
Please contact us for more information; we can probably send you a custom receiver. A standard 1 gram pulse receiver coupled to a blue LED with a 500 µm diameter fiber optic can output 13 mW; custom versions can output 20 mW for short pulses. Custom 2 gram receivers can output up to 35 mW for short pulses. More examples are given in the Teleopto brochure.
How do I protect the 3 pin connector for the LED after implantation?
Caps to protect the connector are now shipped with each LED fiber optic. We also offer dummy receivers which plug into the LEDs and mimic the actual receivers for conditioning purposes. Wiping the prongs with a kimwipe soaked in cooking spray oil and then applying a drop of hot glue to cover the pins works well. (the cooking spray acts as a release agent, otherwise it would be difficult to remove the hot glue).
Can Teleopto be combined with electrophysiology headstages?
Yes. Users sometimes see stimulation artifacts at the onset of optical stimulation, but the amplitude is smaller than the artifacts seen with conventional electrical stimulation. We don’t see any other interference, by, say, the transmission signal, etc.
How do I sterilize the LED Fiber optic before implantation?
Quickly wiping the implant with 70% ethanol is recommended.
How wide is the cone of light produced by the fiber optic implant?
We use a fiber with Numerical Aperture (NA) 0.5, so the exit cone angle is about 42 degrees. Carl Deisseroth’s website has a calculator.
How close together can the two fibers of a bilateral LED implant be?
0.9 mm, center to center.
How long will it take for me to receive my order?
Normally the lead time will be approximately one month.